Awarded Collaborative Faculty Seed Grants, 2013
Export Processing Zones and Private Enterprise Development in Africa and Southeast Asia: A Comparative Study
Bethuel Kinyanjui Kinuthia, Department of Economics, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Howard Stein, Department of Afroamerican and African Studies, University of Michigan
This project proposes to explore the main constraints to the development of export processing zones in Africa. The expansion of export processing zones within this region has been disappointing in contrast to South East Asian countries but provides an opportunity to influence the future direction at an earlier stage in their development in many African countries. The study will compare the experiences of export processing zones in Kenya within the Sub-Saharan Africa and Malaysia in South East Asia, which when matched presents a dramatic contrast. Malaysia has been able to use the export processing zones to build world class capacity in electronic manufacturing and to attract many of the most advanced firms in the industry. In contrast Kenya boosted by AGOA with the US has failed to exploit this opportunity to accelerate private enterprise development, which remains very small compared to Malaysia. There is widespread recognition of the failure of the EPZs in Kenya and considerable debate on future directions including the possibility of transforming the EPZs into Special Economic Zones for future considerations. It would seem to be a timely moment to compare the success of the system in Malaysia to the failures in Kenya. This comparison will be undertaken through interviewing companies located within the export processing zones as well as related institutions. Issues related to performance of export processing zones such as generation of externalities, political economy and environmental effects, workers employment among others will be addressed. Given budgetary and time constraints this will be a preliminary study aimed at developing contacts and refining the methodology.
Outcomes: In 2013 we received funding for an ASRI seed grant to examine export processing zones. The funds covered multiple trips to Kenya in 2013-14 and local expenses to cover interviews in government and visits to Export Processing Zones in Nairobi, Athi River and the Mombasa area. In the process we were able to develop and test a survey device with questions for individual companies operating in the zones. We were also able to apply for a larger grant that would have covered a full comparative study of Kenya and Malaysian EPZs. Unfortunately we were not funded. However we incorporated some of our findings in the Economic Report for Africa 2014, Dynamic Industrialization in Africa: Innovative Institutions, Effective Processes and Flexible Mechanisms. We were the principle authors on the report. Other findings will be included in our chapter on Kenya in a book we are coauthoring for Oxford University Press entitled, Institutions and Industrial Policy in Africa: Toward Structural Transformation and Inclusion. We remain committed to applying for grants in the future to try to secure funding for this project.
Factors Affecting Motivation for Rural Practice Among Midwifing Students in Ghana
Peter Agyei-Baffour, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Ghana
Jody Lori, School of Nursing, University of Michigan
Lack of midwives in rural and remote areas of Ghana is a national concern as the country attempts to reach targets set by Millennium Development Goals to reduce maternal and child mortality by 2015. The current study aims to understand factors influencing third-year Ghanaian midwifery students’ willingness to work in rural areas. The study will take place in the 16 public midwifery schools in Ghana and will include third-year midwifery students (n=700) about to graduate and enter the workforce. Based on focus group discussions and a pilot study conducted in 2009 with midwifery students, we will conduct a computerized survey to assess students’ preferences for rural posting after graduation. Our findings will inform the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Ghana Health Service (GHS) in the development of incentive packages designed to motivate young midwives to practice in rural or deprive areas. The data from this study will enable the MOH to create and test incentive packages for midwives and will provide a framework to assess the preferences of other cadres of health workers in Ghana.
Outcomes: Working with a national sample from all fifteen publicly funded midwifery colleges across the ten regions in Ghana, we conducted a computer-based survey with final year midwifery students to determine the factors that incentivize recruitment and retention to rural, deprived areas within Ghana. Eight hundred and fifty six midwifery students (N=856) completed the computerized survey for a response rate of 91.8%. The majority of respondents from this national survey were born in an urban or peri-urban area (76.1%). Over half (53%) had lived in a rural area after age 5 with the mean and standard deviation 8.7 (7.4) years. While 438 (51.3%) had completed outreach or service in a rural, deprived area during their education, only 24.2% (n=204) of respondents surveyed reported they hoped to work in a rural area following graduation and only 11% (n=94) responded they would “definitely work in a rural area”.
- Regardless of the type of student or the location of the school students in our study had altruistic motivations to become a midwife
- Desire to help others/give back to their home/communities
- Interest in health
- Over half of respondents (55%) reported they were likely or very likely to work in a deprived area
- They also consistently reported “to serve humanity” as the driver for deprived work
- Poor quality of facilities was unanimously chosen by our participants as a major reason they were deterred from working in a deprived area
Moyer, CA, Rominski, S, Nakua, EK, Dzomeku, VM, Agyei-Baffour, P, Lori, JR. (2016). Exposure to disrespectful patient care during training: Data from midwifery students at 15 midwifery schools in Ghana, Midwifery, 41: 39-44. doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2016.07.009
Rominski-Danielson, S, Lori, JR, Moyer, C, Dzomeku, Nakua, E. (2016). “When the baby remains there for a long time it is going to die so you have to hit her small for the baby to come out”: Justification of disrespectful and abusive care during childbirth among midwifery students in Ghana, Health Policy and Planning, doi: 10.1093/heapol/czw114
Rominski-Danielson, S, Moyer, C, Dzomeku, Nakua, E & Lori, JR. (2016). What makes a willing abortion provider? Evidence from a nation-wide survey of final-year students at Ghana’s public midwifery training colleges, Contraception, 93(3):226-32. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2015.11.007
Lori JR, Rominski S, Nakua E, Dzomeku V, Moyer, C & Baffour P. The Rural/Urban Gap in Midwifery Workforce Development. Global Network of WHO Collaborating Centers. Glasgow, Scotland, July 2016.
Moyer CA, Rominski S, Nakua EK, Dzomeku VM, Baffour PA, Lori JR. “Exposure to disrespectful patient care during training: Nationwide data from 15 midwifery training schools in Ghana.” FIGO International Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, October 2015.
Rominski SD. Moyer CA, Nakua E, Dzomeku V, Lori JR. Ghanaian Midwifery Students Willingness to Provide Comprehensive Abortion Care. Presented at the International Conference on Family Planning, Nusa Dua, Bali, January 25-28, 2016
Pilot testing of computerized games for cognitive rehabilitation and emotional well-being of Ugandan school-age children with HIV
Paul Bangirama, Department of Psychiatry, Makerere University School of Medicine, Uganda
Bruno Giordani, Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, University of Michigan
Background: Drs. Giordani and Boivin have collaborated with Drs. Bangirana, Nakasujja, and Opoka at Makerere University over the past several years on NIH-sponsored research in the cognitive rehabilitation of Ugandan school-age children recovering from severe malaria (R01HD064416; PIs Boivin, Nakasujja) and children with HIV (R34MH084782; PI Boivin). This application extends the collaboration to include pilot testing of a new African-based computer game package with Makerere University psychiatry faculty Drs. Bangirana, Nakasujja, and Nakigudde.
Methods: The ASRI award will support a pilot study on the neuropsychological benefits of 24 training sessions with Brain Powered Games (BPG). BPG is a nonproprietary training program for cognitive rehabilitation in children in the African context. BPG will be pilot tested for a oneyear period with 30 of the 50 children with HIV in Kayunga District Uganda, who have served as passive controls in an NIMH R34 study on the neuropsychological benefits of computerized cognitive rehabilitation in school-age Ugandan children with HIV. Memory, learning, attention, problem solving, and psychiatric behavioral benefits from BPG training will be assessed using neuropsychological assessments validated in previous studies.
Anticipated Results: Our BPG package will prove acceptable, feasible, and effective for cognitive evaluation and enrichment in the village/home setting using a mobile network platform. This has tremendous potential as an intervention for cognitive impairment due to various infectious diseases. The study will provide evidence for cognitive and psychiatric benefit, and can be adapted for use in the hospital and community setting by Makerere University Departments of Psychiatry and Paediatrics.
Significance: In the absence of trained clinical personnel to administer assessment and rehabilitation programs, computer intervention programs could meet a widespread and desperate need in the public health sector. This project serves as a “proof of concept” for HIV children; establishing how brain/behavior assessments and interventions can become scaled for accessibility in resource-poor settings that cannot sustain neuropsychiatric special-needs programs.
The Relationship between Property Rights and Political Preferences: An Analysis of Home Ownership in Africa’s Urban Areas
Sylvia Croese, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Anne Pitcher, Department of Afroamerican and African Studies, University of Michigan
Background: Shortages of affordable housing across Africa are well-documented and most governments have designed housing policies to address them. Yet, African governments have also begun to stress the value of home ownership as an asset that can be bought or sold. Given the change in approach and a subsequent boom in real estate prices for high-end housing, the project examines the supply and demand for residential real estate in urban Africa. Moreover, an existing literature on homeownership in developed countries suggests that homeowners have different political preferences from non-homeowners. We want to test that theory in the context of Africa where regimes vary from electoral autocracies to liberal democracies.
Methods: Our methods combine qualitative and quantitative approaches and include fieldwork, semi-structured interviews, GIS data on land values, surveys, and list experiments.
Anticipated Results: We are just beginning this project but we hypothesize that the emergence of housing markets across Africa do not sufficiently explain the increase in high end housing and the boom in prices. Rather, political motivations seem to be driving both supply and demand. Secondly, we hypothesize that if homeowners have been the beneficiaries of state support in order to buy or receive a home, they are more likely to vote for the ruling party, more likely to see the regime as legitimate, and less likely to participate in protest movements. This may be endogenous (that is, it may be because recipients of homes are often public servants) but it seems to hold regardless of ethnic background, religion, age or gender.
Significance: Whether rising home ownership translates into increased regime legitimacy and political stability, or alternately exacerbates differences between the “haves and have notes,” clearly has implications for Africa’s future political and economic development.
Technologies of Conservation Governance and State Surveillance in Kenya’s Protected Areas
Jesse T. Njoka, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Bilal Butt, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan
Background: Across East Africa, the precipitous decline in key wildlife species, such as Elephants and Rhinos, has been attributed to resource poor “poachers” who work to fuel the rising demand for ivory. One common way by which state agencies, in collaboration with private conservation entities combat this problem is by relying on the use of mobile technologies, such as drones and infra-red cameras as key tools, to enhance and expand the surveillance of people and wildlife in and around a network of ecologically and economically important protected areas. However, these technologies and surveillance methods overly simplify and categorize local peoples interactions with the environment casting them as ‘static objects’ or ‘moving targets’. The purpose of this project is to understand the varied ways in which new and emerging technologies of conservation governance characterize local peoples and their productive interactions with the environment in Kenya.
Methods: To accomplish this goal, we rely on participant observation techniques and key informant interviews with rangers and other conservation officials within key conservation spaces. We will travel with rangers on their daily patrols and document the frequency, contexts and outcomes associated with technology use.
Anticipated Results: By examining the contexts and frequency with which conservation managers rely on mobile technologies, we will construct a typology of the different technologies and identify how they work to make facile categorizations of people and places. Using these results, we will actively work with policy makers to highlight the unintended consequences of these technologies in conservation governance.
Significance: This project is important because it sheds light on the ways in which ostensibly positive and uniform technologies of conservation governance succeed in simplifying livelihood production practices and the categorization of people and places. These technologies, coupled with coercive wildlife management policies, exacerbate vulnerability to social produced hazards.
Outcomes: This project sought to understand how, where, when and under what conditions the State relies on technologies of conservation governance such as electric fences, two-way radios, infra-red cameras and other mobile and immobile objects to combat threats to biodiversity in wildlife-rich landscapes. Though case studies from protected areas in Kenya, key wildlife officials such as rangers and game wardens work with donor agencies to facilitate the implementation of these technologies as key “silver-bullet” solutions to long-standing conservation failures. In one case, the construction of a fixed electric fence around an entire protected areas serves to further limit local peoples interactions with the forest, casting them as agents of deforestation without placing local peoples’ interactions within a historical or cultural context. The fence is therefore the technological product of state failures to understand how local peoples have interacted with landscapes that embody their cultural and environmental history in place.
In the second case study, the implementation of mobile two-ways radio systems in large protected areas was used to report the presence of illegal cattle grazing which are thought to influence the density and distribution of wildlife. These sighting of wildlife are communicated through a wide network of driver-guides, rangers, and protected area managers. In each instance of transmission between these agents, information regarding the herd owner, size of the herd, the location of the herd and how best to deal with the offenders is made available instantaneously, and fines are levied on herd owners. Such instant communication flows oversimplify the nature of livestock movements and similarly fail to understand the broader contexts for these “transgressions”. Thus the fixed electric fence and mobile radio serve to reinforce popular but incorrect understandings of local peoples’ interactions with the environment, without placing these technologies within wider or denser networks of interaction.