Awarded Collaborative Faculty Seed Grants, 2015
Evaluating the Quality of Democracy in Mozambique through the Lens of the 2014 Election
Carlos Shenga, Centra de Pesquisas sobre Governação e Desenvolvimento (CPGD), Mozambique
Brian Min, Center for Political Studies, University of Michigan
Background: This proposal is to evaluate the quality of democracy in Mozambique by piloting a post-electoral public opinion survey of the 2014 national election to obtain research data, amongst other things, on vote choice, candidate and party evaluations and evaluation of the electoral system itself. This is necessary to measure the extent to which Mozambique’s electoral commission was able to supply an election that was seen as free and fair; the country’s political parties were able to bring voters into the democratic process, inform them, and offer them effective choice; and whether born frees – the generation that was born under democratic freedom and eligible to vote for the first time – are supportive of democracy and elections in comparison with the generation that lived under colonial and one party authoritarianism.
Methods: We will survey a nationally representative, random, stratified probability sample of 1,200 Mozambican citizens using face-to-face interviews.
Anticipated Results: Journal articles and working papers to inform (1) academic debate and research on election studies; and (2) Mozambican policy makers, donors and civil society supporting democracy and governance programmes on how the quality of democracy may be improved through elections.
Significance: This will contribute significant data to the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems, a collaborative program of research among election study teams around the world led by the University of Michigan and others such as the Comparative National Elections Project that includes surveys in 20 countries. This is vital to ensure primary research data from Africa, an under representative region in political science research, is captured and integrated into these important projects. This will not only increase the use of the Mozambique data in international political science research but it will also become possible to study the quality of democracy in Mozambique in a comparative context with other countries.
Outcomes: With this seed grant we collected a huge amount of objective data on election and electricity in Mozambique at the district level. This data is being using to prepare a paper which will be available in the first quarter of 2017. In addition, the following working paper is now available:
Electricity Provision and Elections in Mozambique
Abstract: The distributive politics and distributive goods literature point out that provision of public goods affect elections. By employing nightlight electricity and election data this study tested and examined the effect of government provision of electricity to the public in relation to the 1999, 2004 and 2014 elections in Mozambique. Controlling for other aspects, it found that the provision of electricity appears to have no effect either on election competition or voter turnout, as the level of electricity within the country is very shallow and electricity tends to be equally distributed across electoral districts. It also found that electoral districts with high magnitude have more competitive elections but this does not affect voter turnout. Furthermore the most recent elections appear to be associated with low voter turnout, suggesting that the way elections were conducted, in terms of registering voters and the voting itself, have not incentivized voters to vote.
Evaluating Reproductive Healthcare Services for Adolescents and Women with Disabilities in Ethiopia
Malede Birara, St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Ethiopia
Susan D. Ernst, Department of OB/GYN, University of Michigan
Background: There are over 15 million people with disabilities living in Ethiopia. Women living with disabilities in Ethiopia have lower access to reproductive healthcare services and thus higher rates of sexually transmitted infection and unintended pregnancy. Informal interviews of women with disabilities in Ethiopia reveal challenges accessing reproductive healthcare and discrimination in the healthcare system.
Methods: We plan to conduct a survey to assess current barriers to reproductive healthcare for women with disabilities in Ethiopia. We will partner with several disabled persons’ membership organizations to enroll 100 women with disabilities aged 18-65. The survey will collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, health and social wellbeing, family planning knowledge, reproductive histories, and personal reproductive healthcare experiences—including attitudes about, preferences for, and access to reproductive healthcare.
Anticipated Results: Results from this study will reveal barriers to reproductive healthcare for women with disabilities in Ethiopia, specifically physical barriers, educational barriers, and stigma and discrimination experienced by these women in current healthcare settings. This project will complement our other work examining provider and system barriers for reproductive healthcare for women with disabilities. Our ultimate goal is to design and implement services tailored to the needs of this population of women.
Significance: As stated previously, this survey of women with disabilities is one critical component of our multi-faceted project to determine barriers to reproductive healthcare for adolescents and women with disabilities. We plan to use this information to guide the creation of a healthcare clinic at St. Paul’s Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia that would function as a regional hub for the care of adolescents and women with disabilities. More importantly, this facility would be a training center where healthcare providers can develop the necessary skills to care for and understand the special healthcare needs of this population.